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Bosphorus Center for Asian Studies

Belt and Road Project

Turkey-China Relations Within the Scope of Belt and Road Project

As the world’s biggest population, the second-biggest economy, and one of the highest growing economies, China is an important state for Turkey as important for all states. The diplomatic relations between Turkey and China were established in 1971 and the economic and political ties have been strengthened after both states were liberalized and opened their economies into the world economy in the 1980s.[1] However, in the 1990s, Turkey’s attention to the Uyghur community who live in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region has deteriorated the relations.[2] In 2000, a joint communiqué was realized in Turkey by Jiang Zemin who was the president of China and Süleyman Demirel who was the president of Turkey and Bülent Ecevit who was the prime minister of Turkey. At this official visit of Jiang Zemin, the Agreed Minutes of the 13th Session of the Turco-Chinese Joint Economic and Trade Committee and the Framework Protocol of Economic and Technological Cooperation in the Energy Sector between the Republic of Turkey and the People’s Republic of China were signed with the aims of strengthening the bilateral relations.[3] However, the most important momentum for the bilateral relations was the establishment of “strategic cooperation”. The reciprocal high-level visits of two states helped to the creation of this strategic cooperation. In 2010, after the high-level visit of Wen Jiabao who was the president of China, Turkey and China agreed to establish the strategic cooperative relations that deepen the economic and political ties of two states.[4] The high-level visits have continued at the presidential level in 2012 and 2015, and in the ministerial level in 2016, 2017, and 2018 periodically.[5]

Although the main dynamic of Turkey-China relations has been economic, the project of Belt and Road gave new momentum to the relations of two states. With the project of Belt and Road, China aims to revitalize the old Silk Route trade routes which were the main ancient trade network. As well as the project will ensure to improve economic relations, it also requires strategic cooperation and partnership relations in terms of realizing the project and establishing the required infrastructure. While Turkey has tried to be an active partner of the project, the question of whether the relations of two states will transform from “strategic cooperation” to “strategic partnership” has remained on the agenda. Even if the project is planned to be completed in 2049 and the outcomes will be beyond the predictions, Turkey started to implement some projects that contribute to the Belt and Road Project. How bilateral relations of Turkey and China will be shaped within the scope of the Belt and Road and how Turkey’s foreign policy will be affected by the project? The article aims to answer these questions and analyze the bilateral relations of Turkey and China since 2013 when the project was launched. In Section1, the Belt and Road project and Turkey’s role within the project will be explained. In Section 2, the relations of Turkey and China within the Belt and Road will be analyzed by questioning whether Turkey-China relations go beyond the strategic partnership. In the conclusion part, some policy recommendations that will strengthen the bilateral relations will be added.

 

Belt and Road Project and Turkey

The Belt and Road Project was first announced in September ve October 2013 when president Xi Jinping’s visits of Kazakhstan and Indonesia and was incorporated into China’s national economic development strategy in 2014.[6] The project was announced as an initiative of jointly building the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road. While “The Silk Road Economic Belt” includes to link China, Central Asia, Russia, and Europe; link China with the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea through Central Asia and West Asia; and connect China with Southeast Asia, South Asia and the Indian Ocean, “The 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road” includes the route from China’s coast to Europe through the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean, and from China’s coast through the South China Sea to the South Pacific.[7] Hereinafter the project referred to as the Belt and Road. The “belt” refers to the land portion of the Silk Road Economic Belt, and the “road” refers to the Maritime Silk Road.[8]

As China’s development strategy, the project aims to revitalize the old Silk Road and redefine the region in the contemporary international system[9]. With this project, China aims to promote the connectivity of Asian, European and African continents; enhance economic policy coordination; promote regional infrastructure; increase investment, jobs opportunities, and cultural interaction.[10] The main motivations of China to launch this project can be listed as follow:

  • reduce the costs of transporting goods
  • decrease the economy’s dependence on domestic infrastructure investment
  • find outlets for China’s domestic companies overseas
  • increase China’s national currency in value with infrastructural developments
  • secure China’s energy supply
  • ensure growing demand for China’s goods and services[11]

To operationalize the project, China has signed bilateral agreements with more than 70 countries. Included 30% of the world trade, 75% of resources, 62% of the world population, and 6 economic corridors, the project is expected to exceed S$1 trillion of investment.[12] China led to the establishment of the Silk Road Fund (SRF) and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) to support the implementation of the project. Even though the project aims to provide the joint management, China is faced with criticism that it is going to monopolize infrastructure developments due to its actual veto power as the largest investor of AAIB according to Articles of Agreement of the AAIB.[13]

Apart from this criticism, there are also some other challenges and criticisms of the B&R project. First of all, the project has the potential to encounter some security problems in volatile areas like The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Economic Corridor (BCIM).The success of the B&R is depended on the stability in the Kashmir region in CPEC and in Myanmar in the BCIM. As well as these corridors, Uyghur minority issue in China, potential conflict dynamics between the Myanmar and China border, and India pose another security problem. [14] Secondly, there is a lack of political trust between China and most of the B&R countries and China is blamed for using the AIIB as a debt trap. The AIIB ensures loans for states which are lack bearing the infrastructural costs of the project even if their economic capacities are inadequate to refund the loan. So, the AIBB is criticized for inducing the over-debt.[15] Thirdly, the USA and its potential initiatives to impede the B&R is another problematic issue.[16]

Turkey involves in the B&R as part of Turkey-Pakistan-China railroad project. Turkey is important with its strategic location as an easy linkage between the continents of Asia and Europe and will be a part of the railway route of the project.[17] In November 2015, “Memorandum of Understanding on Aligning the Belt and Road Initiative and the Middle Corridor Initiative” was signed between Turkey and China to strengthen their cooperation within the B&R.[18] As well as the bilateral agreements, Turkey has also developed some unilateral initiatives that serve the project. While the bilateral agreements include the development of railway infrastructure, the use of ports and the creation of highway connections, domestic initiatives of Turkey include the construction of the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway line, Marmaray and the 3rd Bridge, The Edirne-Kars High-Speed Railway line, Yavuz  Sultan  Selim  Bridge, Eurasia Tunnel, and so on.[19]

Turkey also offered a “Middle Corridor” as an alternative route that connects Turkey from the Mediterranean in the West, the Black Sea to the North and through to the Caspian in the East.[20] The corridor begins in Turkey and passes through the Caucasus region, Georgia, Azerbaijan, the Caspian Sea, and Central Asia, and reaches to China.[21] The Middle Corridor represents Turkey’s own version of a Silk Road initiative and it includes the establishment of a region-wide railroad network.[22] With this initiative, Turkey aimed to draft B&R structures to fit in with Turkeys “Middle Corridor”, and has given speed to its domestic infrastructural developments.[23] For instance, the completion of the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway line that linking Azerbaijan and Georgia to Turkey in 2017[24], initiatives to realize the Turkey-Georgia-Azerbaijan-Turkmenistan-Afghanistan transit corridor (Lapis Lazuli), modernization of Turkey’s existing railroads in 2018, and initiatives to develop links between the Silk Road and Turkish seaports and investments on the construction ports in Filyos, Çandarlı and Mersin are seen as the Middle Corridor initiative of Turkey.[25] Construction of Marmaray, The Edirne-Kars High-Speed Railway line, Yavuz  Sultan  Selim  Bridge, and Eurasia Tunnel projects were completed projects of Turkey and the Three-Level Tube Tunnel Project, Edirne-Kars High-Speed Rail Project, Çanakkale Strait Bridge, Gebze-Orhangazi-İzmir Motorway, Northern Marmara Motorway are also planned domestic projects of Turkey within the framework of Middle Corridor.[26]

 

Can the Relations of Turkey and China Go Beyond the Strategic Cooperation With the Belt and Road

Turkey is an important regional actor in terms of its geographical location replacing between the Asia and Europe continents, in terms of its stability in comparison with its Middle Eastern and Caucasus neighbors, and in terms of its willingness to play an active role within the B&R.[27] Turkey is also important to promote cultural interaction with its Turkic identity and impact on the Turkic states, especially in Central Asia.[28]

When we look at the Turkey-China relations, although the strategic cooperation relations of Turkey and China that established in 2010 continue with the B&R, the project has increased the questions of whether the bilateral relations of Turkey and China will go beyond the strategic cooperation. After the coup attempt in Turkey on July 2015 and unwillingness of Western countries especially the USA to take sides with Turkey against the Fethullah Terror Organization (FETO), and the deteriorated relations with the USA due to its supporting to the PYD and YPG in Syria, Turkey has gotten closer to China. Turkey joined the Belt and Road Forum of 2017 in presidential level and Turkey’s willingness to take part as an active participant to the project was expressed.[29] Since 2015, Turkey has tried to modernize its existing railways, to construct high-speed railways within Turkey, and to give speed infrastructural projects. As well as opening the Baku-Tbilisi- Kars Railway, Turkish railway authority (TCDD) joined to the Trans-Caspian International Transport Route (TITR) in February 2018 to take part regional developments actively.  Chinese firms have taken part in the construction of ports in Turkey to develop links between the Silk Road and Turkish seaports in recent years. [30] Moreover, in August 2017, Turkey and China expressed their willingness to cooperate in the constructions of the Edirne-Kars high-speed railway and 3rd Nuclear Power Plant projects in the joint press conference of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Turkey Mevlut Cavusoglu and his Chinese counterparts Vang Yi.[31]

More than 1000 Chinese firms work actively in Turkey in logistics, electronics, energy, tourism, and real estate sectors[32] and financial cooperation between Turkey and China has increased since 2015 as well. The Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC) signed an agreement between the Turkish and Chinese central banks to use Turkish lira and Chinese yuan instead of dollars and euros. In December 2017, Ziraat Bank of Turkey and China Development Bank signed a $600 million credit agreement.[33] In July 2018, after Turkey faced with the currency depreciation, China gave support Turkey to overcome the crisis and the AIIB approved $600 million loans as well as the ICBC lent another $3.6 billion to Turkey as a loan for the energy and transportation sectors.[34]

While there are some positive developments in Turkey-China relations like financial cooperation and infrastructural cooperation there are also some problematic issues that hinder the improvement of the relations. The Uyghur Turks are the most problematic issue between Turkey and China that hinder the promotion of their relations. The Uyghur Turks who live in the Xinjiang autonomous region of China have exposed to the tight control of the Chinese government since 1949 when the People’s Republic of China was established. In the 1980s and 1990s, the increased repression and violence of China caused to flee a significant number of Uyghur Turks away from their country.[35] The relations of Turkey and China deteriorated during the1990s due to Turkey’s sensitivity to the Uyghur issue.[36] In 2009 and 2015, China’s attitude towards Uyghur Turks was defined as ethnic genocide by Recep Tayyip Erdogan who was the prime minister and people who fled away from Xinjiang were offered protection, however, the economic relations of two countries built a barrier taking a step in this issue.[37] In February 2019, a new crisis happened between Turkey and China. After the news about the death of Uyghur poet Abdurehim Heyit in the Chinese detention camp in Xinjiang were released, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkey made a statement that calls China to respect the rights of the Uyghur Turks  and Hami Aksoy who is a spokesman for Turkey’s foreign ministry defined the treatment of China towards Uyghur Turks as “a great shame for humanity.”[38] China denied the death of Abdurehim Heyit and was released a video of him in the camp.[39] Nevertheless, the crisis affected Turkish-Chinese relations. Turkey did not join to the 2nd Belt and Road Forum that occurred on April 2019 in Beijing although Turkish Foreign Ministry spokesman said that Turkey is planning to attend in March.[40]

The second problem is the uncertainty in the outcomes of the B&R. Although the B&R suggests a win-win situation for all participants, there is no concrete plan about how this win-win relation will be ensured and how much benefit the participants gain after the project. Furthermore, the harmonization and integration of the B&R and the Middle Corridor initiative of Turkey are also ambiguous.[41] The suspicions on debt-trap of the project have the potential to affect Turkey-China cooperation. Turkey showed debt-trap diplomacy as a reason to not attend the 2nd Belt and Road Forum as well as the Uyghur issue.[42]

Even if the bilateral relations of Turkey and China have deepened since 2015 and strategic cooperation relations have continued, a more trust-building is necessary between two states to increase the strategic partnership relations. While Turkey has tried to diversify its relations and has decreased its dependency to the West by strengthening its relations with China, China has walked on thin ice with its relations with Turkey.

 

Conclusion

Since diplomatic relations were established between Turkey and China in 1971, the bilateral relations of two states have been undulated. Whereas the economy has been the main driver of the relations, the B&R project of China added a new dimension to Turkey-China relations. As well as the B&R’s suggestion to ensure economic gain to all participants with win-win relations, the project also suggests joint construction of the project that requires strategic cooperation to infrastructural development. The five aims of the project are regional connectivity, economic policy coordination, infrastructural development, investment promotion, and cultural interaction.[43] For Turkey, the B&R is an opportunity to strengthen its geopolitical importance, to diversify its economy and decrease its dependency to the West, and to change its peripheral status in world trade to a more central position.[44] The project also serves the purpose of Turkey to be an energy hub country. For China, Turkey is an important regional actor in terms of its geographical location replacing between the Asia and Europe continents, in terms of its stability in comparison with its Middle Eastern and Caucasus neighbors, and in terms of its willingness to play an active role within the B&R.[45] In terms of cultural interaction, Turkey is important with its Turkic identity and impact on the Turkic states, especially in Central Asia.[46]

The relations of Turkey and China have deepened since 2015. After the coup attempt in Turkey on July 2015, Turkey aimed to diversify it’s political relations due to the unwillingness of the West countries to take a side in Turkey to deal with the terrorism and especially after the USA’s unwillingness to take back the leader of the FETO. The deteriorated relations of Turkey with the West have promoted the relations of Turkey and China. China has given support to Turkey’s infrastructural projects with loans provided by the AIIB and the ICBC, and with Chinese firms that take part actively to the construction of the projects. The foreign ministers of the two states also expressed their willingness to construct the planned projects in Turkey. However, the Uyghur Turks, the uncertainties in the future of the project and the perception of the debt-trap is the main obstacles to promote relations of the two states.

How can the relations between Turkey and China be strengthened and deepened? Firstly, Turkey and China should promote their cooperative relations in regional organizations like the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Because these regional organizations are so important in Asian politics and Turkey should play a more active role in these organizations to increase its importance to China. Secondly, Turkey has a significant trade deficit with its trade with China. According to the last variables of May 2019, while Turkey’s import value from China is $20.7 billion, it’s export value to China just $2.9 billion.[47] To overcome this huge deficit, Turkey should diversify its products and should give prioritize the potential sectors like sea products, pulses, nuts, construction products, packing materials, and white goods.[48]

Thirdly, the issue of Uyghur Turks will continue to be the most important obstacle to the relations of Turkey and China unless Turkey does not accept the issue as the domestic affairs of China. Because China has accepted any reaction in the Uyghur Turks issue as interference to its domestic affairs and its firm position has not changed in time. To strengthen its relations with China, Turkey should accept the Uyghur Turks issue as the domestic affairs of China or should support to resolution in the framework of international organizations like the United Nations. Fourthly, as one of the most important drivers of the B&R, developmental constructions should support and the Turkish firms should incentivize to take a more active role in the construction projects within the B&R globally. Lastly, Turkey should continue its infrastructural developments in the country and should give speed its projects within the concept of the Middle Corridor, however, cooperation between China should increase in these projects to harmonize the Middle Corridor and the B&R.

[1] “Relations Between Turkey and China”. MFA, Accessed 24.05.2019. http://www.mfa.gov.tr/relations-between-turkey-and-china.en.mfa

[2]Altay Atlı, “Turkey’s Foreign Policy Towards China: Analysis and Recommendations for Improvement”.Global Relations Forum Young Academics Program, Policy Paper Series, No.3 (June 2016):7.

[3] “Joint Comminique Between the Republic of Turkey and the People’s Republic of China”. MFA, Accessed 24.05.2019. http://www.mfa.gov.tr/joint-communique-between-the-republic-of-turkey-and-the-people_s-republic-of-china_br_april-19_-2000_-ankara-.en.mfa

[4] “China, Turkey to Establish Strategic Cooperative Relationship”. Xinhua, Accessed 24.05.2019. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2010-10/08/content_11386689.htm

[5] “Relations between Turkey and China”. MFA, Accessed 24.05.2019 http://www.mfa.gov.tr/relations-between-turkey-and-china.en.mfa.

[6] Peter Cai, “Understanding China’s Belt and Road Initiative”. Lowy Institure for International Policy, March 2017

[7] Vision and Actions on Jointly Building Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road- National   Development and Reform Commission, NDRC, Updated: 23 March 2015, Accessed:23.03.2019. http://en.ndrc.gov.cn/images/logo_en1.png

[8] Simeon Djankov, Sean Miner, “China’s Belt and Road Initiative: Motives, Scope, and Challenges”. Peterson Instıtute for International Economics, 2016

[9] Ceren Ergenç, “Can Two Ends of Asia Meet? An Overview of Contemporary Turkey-China Relations”. East Asia (2015) 32:289–308 DOI 10.1007/s12140-015-9242-6

[10]El Namaki; “ Is China’s Belt and Road Initiative a Case of Cross Country Dynamic Synergy?”.  Scholedge R&D Center, 2017; p.40-45.

[11] Simeon Djankov, “The Rationale Behind China’s Belt and Road Initiative”. IN “China’s Belt and Road Initiative: Motives, Scope, and Challenges”, Edited by Simeon Djankov, Sean Miner, Peterson Instıtute for International Economics, 2016.

[12] “Belt and Road Initiative”, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Accessed 24.05.2019. https://www.ebrd.com/who-we-are/history-of-the-ebrd.html

[13] Hong Yu, “Motivation behind China’s ‘One Belt, One Road’ Initiatives and Establishment of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank”. Journal of Contemporary China, Vol.26(2017):353-368, DOI: 10.1080/10670564.2016.1245894

[14] Cullen S. Hendrix, “Rough Patches on the Silk Road? The Security Implications of China’s Belt and Road Initiative”. IN “China’s Belt and Road Initiative: Motives, Scope, and Challenges”, Edited by Simeon Djankov, Sean Miner, Peterson Instıtute for International Economics, 2016.

[15] “Why the Belt and Road Initiative Anything but Debt Trap?”, China Daily, Accesed 24.05.2019. http://global.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201904/14/WS5cb26c77a3104842260b60d7.html

[16] Hong Yu, “Motivation behind China’s ‘One Belt, One Road’ Initiatives and Establishment of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank”.

[17] Veli Ahmet Çevik, Tülin Durukan, Cihat Kartal, “Kuşak ve Yol Projesinde Türkiye’nin Konumu”. International Congress of Business, Economic and Marketing, Kiev,11-14 October 2018.

[18] “Turkey’s Multilateral Transportation Policy”, MFA, Accessed 25.05.2019. http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkey_s-multilateral-transportation-policy.en.mfa

[19] Nurettin Akçay, “Turkey-China Relations Within the Concept of the New Silk Road Project”.

ANKASAM, Vol.1 No.3 (December 2017): 73-96.

[20] Chris Devonshire-Ellis, “China’s Silk Road Sews up with Turkey’s Middle Corridor”.The New Silk Road Project, Accessed 25.05.2019.https://www.thenewsilkroadproject.com/writing/2018/6/17/chinas-silkroadsews-up-withturkeys-middle-corridor-then-into-central-asia-and-themiddle-east

[21] “Turkey’s Multilateral Transportation Policy”, MFA.

[22] Selçuk Çolakoğlu, “China’s Belt and Road Initiative and Turkey’s Middle Corridor Question Compatibility”. Middle East Institute, Accessed 25.05.2019. https://www.mei.edu/publications/chinas-belt-and-road-initiative-and-turkeys-middle-corridor-question-compatibility

[23] Chris Devonshire-Ellis, “China’s Silk Road Sews up with Turkey’s Middle Corridor”.

[24] Fuad Shahbazov, “Baku-Tbilisi-Kars Railway to Become Central Asia’s Gateway to Europe”. The Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst, Accessed 25.05.2019 https://www.cacianalyst.org/publications/analytical-articles/item/13486-baku-tbilisi-kars-railway-to-become-central-asias-gateway-to-europe.html

[25] Selçuk Çolakoğlu, “China’s Belt and Road Initiative and Turkey’s Middle Corridor Question Compatibility”.

[26] “Turkey’s Multilateral Transportation Policy”, MFA.

[27] Rıza Kadılar, Ergin Ergüney, “One Belt Ona Road Initiative: Perks and Challenges for Turkey”.Turkish Policy Quarterly (Summer 2017).

[28] Kadir Temiz, “Türkiye-Çin İlişkileri (Turkey-China Relations)”. SETA Analiz, Number 196 (April 2017).

[29] Nurettin Akçay, “Turkey-China Relations Within the Concept of the New Silk Road Project”.

[30] Matt Clinch, “China Backs Turkey to Overcome its Economic Crisis”, CNBC, Accessed 25.05.2019. https://www.cnbc.com/2018/08/17/china-backs-turkey-to-overcome-its-economic-crisis.html

[31] “Çin’le Stratejik Projelerde İşbirliği Açıklaması ( Expression on the Cooperation With China in Strategic Projects)”. NTV, Accessed 26.05.2019. https://www.ntv.com.tr/dunya/cinle-stratejik-projelerde-isbirligi-aciklamasi,w7a3cM3yAkywEAVk6Sp21Q

[32] “Türkiye’deki Çinli Şirket Sayısı 1000’i Buldu (The Chinese Firms in Turkey  Reached to 1000)”, A Haber, Accessed 27.05.2019. https://www.ahaber.com.tr/ekonomi/2018/06/29/turkiyedeki-cinli-sirket-sayisi-1000i-buldu

[33] Selçuk Çolakoğlu, “China’s Belt and Road Initiative and Turkey’s Middle Corridor Question Compatibility”.

[34] Matt Clinch, “China Backs Turkey to Overcome its Economic Crisis”, CNBC, Accessed 25.05.2019. https://www.cnbc.com/2018/08/17/china-backs-turkey-to-overcome-its-economic-crisis.html

[35] Anna Hayes, “Explainer: Who are the Uyghurs and Why is the Chinese Government Detaining Them”, The Conversation, Accessed 26.05.2019. https://theconversation.com/explainer-who-are-the-uyghurs-and-why-is-the-chinese-government-detaining-them-111843

[36] Nurettin Akçay, “Turkey-China Relations Within the Concept of the New Silk Road Project” p.76

[37] Alexandra Ma, “Turkey China Feud Over Muslim Crackdown Abdurrehim Heyit Mystery”, Business Insider, Accessed 26.05.2019. https://www.businessinsider.com/turkey-china-feud-over-muslim-crackdown-abdurrehim-heyit-mystery-2019-2

[38] “‘China’s Treatment of Uyghurs is Embarrassment for Humanity’ Says Turkey”, The Guardian, Accessed 26.05.2019. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/feb/10/chinas-treatment-of-uyghurs-is-embarrassment-for-humanity-says-turkey

[39] Alexandra Ma, “Turkey China Feud Over Muslim Crackdown Abdurrehim Heyit Mystery”, Business Insider, Accessed 26.05.2019. https://www.businessinsider.com/turkey-china-feud-over-muslim-crackdown-abdurrehim-heyit-mystery-2019-2

[40] “Turkey to Attend 2nd Belt and Road Forum in Beijing: Spokesman”, Belt and Road Portal, Accessed 26.05.2019.https://eng.yidaiyilu.gov.cn/qwyw/rdxw/81734.htm

[41] Selçuk Çolakoğlu, “Turkey-China Relations: From Strategic Cooperation to Strategic Partnership?”, Middle East Institute, Accessed 27.05.2019. https://www.mei.edu/publications/turkey-china-relations-strategic-cooperation-strategic-partnership#_ftnref23

[42] “Turkey Stays Away From China’s Belt and Road Summit Citing Debt-Trap Diplomacy and Uighur Concerns”, Intellinews, Accessed 27.05.2019. https://intellinews.com/turkey-stays-away-from-china-s-belt-and-road-summit-citing-debt-trap-diplomacy-and-uighur-concerns-160249/

[43] El Namaki; “ Is China’s Belt and Road Initiative a Case of Cross Country Dynamic Synergy?”;  Scholedge R&D Center, 2017; p.40-45

[44] S.Işık Bora, “The New Silk Road Initiative: Turkey’s Stakes in the Global Developmenral Project”. Avrasya İncelemeleri Merkezi, No.25 (2017)

[45] Rıza Kadılar, Ergin Ergüney, “One Belt One Road Initiative: Perks and Challenges for Turkey”. Turkish Policy Quarterly (Summer 2017).

[46] Kadir Temiz, “Türkiye-Çin İlişkileri (Turkey-China Relations)”. SETA Analiz, Number 196 (April 2017).

[47]  Mehmet Çetingüleç, “ Turkey Grapples with Big Trade Deficit with China”. Al Monitor, Accessed 27.05.2019. https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2019/05/turkey-grapples-with-big-trade-deficit-with-china.html

[48] “Potansiyel Sektörler (Potential Sectors)”, Türkiye Ticaret Bakanlığı, Accessed 27.05.2019.https://www.ticaret.gov.tr/yurtdisi-teskilati/dogu-asya/cin-halk-cumhuriyeti/sektorler/potansiyel-sektorler

BAAM Belt and Road Program Researcher

k.mervetopgul@gmail.com